Oncology is a branch of medicine dedicated to diagnosing, treating and researching cancer.
These specialists work as part of a multidisciplinary team which may include a pathologist, radiologist, primary care physician, geneticist, palliative care specialist, oncology nurse, and organ-specific oncologists.
Carcinoma – refers to a cancer found in body tissue known as epithelial tissue that covers or lines surfaces of organs, glands or body structures. For example, a cancer of the lining of the stomach is called a carcinoma. Many carcinomas affect organs or glands that are involved with secretion, such as breasts that produce milk. Carcinomas account for 80 percent to 90 percent of all cancer cases.
Sarcoma – refers to a malignant tumor growing from connective tissues, such as cartilage, fat, muscle, tendons and bones. The most common sarcoma, a tumor on the bone, usually occurs in young adults. Examples of sarcoma include osteosarcoma (bone) and chondrosarcoma (cartilage).
Lymphoma – refers to a cancer that originates in the nodes or glands of the lymphatic system — which produces white blood cells and clean body fluids — or in organs such as the brain and breast. Lymphomas are classified into two categories: Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Leukemia – also known as blood cancer, is a cancer of the bone marrow that keeps the marrow from producing normal red and white blood cells and platelets. White blood cells are needed to resist infection. Red blood cells are needed to prevent anemia. Platelets keep the body from easily bruising and bleeding. Examples of leukemia include acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The terms myelogenous and lymphocytic indicate the type of cells that are involved.
Myeloma– grows in the plasma cells of bone marrow. In some cases, the myeloma cells collect in one bone and form a single tumor, called a plasmacytoma. However, in other cases, the myeloma cells collect in many bones, forming many bone tumors — called multiple myeloma.
Cancer refers to cells that grow out-of-control and invade other tissues. Cells become cancerous due to the accumulation of defects, or mutations, in their DNA. The same can be caused due to: